- August 27, 2021
- Posted by: Shalini R
- Category: Virtual Reality
Construction is no exception to how technology is changing virtually every sector. Three-dimensional 3D modeling is one type of technology that has lately had a significant influence on the building sector. Today’s building projects depend heavily on 3D models since they may increase productivity and ease of labor.
For earthworks and machine control, 3D modeling may, among other things, enhance equipment accuracy, boost job site productivity, and save costs. Do you have any idea how to use this technology in your future project?
What is 3D Modelling?
The process of producing a three-dimensional representation of an item using specialist software is referred to as “3D modeling.” The size, form, and texture of an item may all be conveyed using this representation, which is known as a 3D model. You may make 3D models of current things as well as designs that have yet to be produced in real life.
Machine control may be done with 3D representations of a job site in construction. The points, lines, and surfaces that make up the actual environment are included in these reproductions. In order to determine the location of horizontal and vertical points in relation to a reference point, they need coordinate data. You may look at the representation from different perspectives because of the spatial connections.
To give machine operators with input on things like target grades and bucket or blade position, machine control employs a variety of positioning sensors. Using the 3D model as a guide, the machine operators can guarantee that their task is completed correctly and on time. Workers may identify the replica’s points in the field using GPS technology, and sensors on equipment inform them where they are in relation to the model’s points.
In order to make the 3D model a reality, teams use these control methods to guide equipment to create the lines, points, and surfaces exactly as depicted in the model. Project, design, and environmental compliance assessments may all be done with 3D models. Pre-bidding also benefits from these models, since contractors may test out different designs and convey ideas.
The Evolution of 3D Modeling
Without advancements in civil surveys and different forms of 3D modeling, the methodologies and technology utilized today for 3D earthworks modeling would not exist.
The history of 3D earthworks modeling may be traced all the way back to prehistoric times. Early surveying skills were employed to build the pyramids, and geometry was used to re-establish field borders after the Nile River flooded. For example, civil surveying became a profession in ancient Rome, and surveyors developed measurement techniques to evaluate and record areas that had been acquired.
Known as the father of geometry, Euclid lived in ancient Greece and created concepts that have influenced current surveying and 3D modeling techniques to a large degree to this day. Descartes’s analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry, was developed many years later, in the 1600s, by French mathematician Rene Descartes.
When European surveyors began using triangulation in the 18th century, they realized that they could utilize numerous angle measurements collected from different places to pinpoint an exact position. There was a rise in the popularity of new surveying equipment such as measuring wheels, circumferentors, Kater compasses, and Gunter chains. Meanwhile, English mathematicians James Joseph Sylvester and Arthur Cayley invented matrix mathematics, which is what allows today’s computer-generated pictures to exhibit reflections or light distortions.
Steel bands and invar tapes were later introduced by surveyors. Electromagnetic distance measuring (EDM) and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems ultimately supplanted these instruments. Theodolites, which measure horizontal and vertical angles using a revolving telescope, replaced compasses for surveying. Later, total stations using EDM technology were used instead of transit theodolites. As a result of these technological advances, they can now measure both angles and distances.
Then came the introduction of the first commercially accessible computer-aided design (CAD) systems, which transform survey data into visual representations. Evans & Sutherland, the first 3D graphics firm, debuted in 1968. CAD programs grew in sophistication and availability over the next several decades.
Users in the machine control sector began to transition away from survey stakes, which surveyors manually placed up and machine operators read visually, and toward 3D modeling. To allow 3D earthworks modeling, a number of technologies were combined, including:
- By employing computer-aided design, a 3D model may be generated (CAD).
- Engineers can determine accurate locations using GPS.
- LiDAR is a remote sensing technique that employs a pulsed laser to assess changing distances.
- Engineers can extract topographical data from aerial pictures obtained by drones using aerial photogrammetry.
Laser scanning technology is used to produce a set of three-dimensional data points that are then utilized to create a model in point-cloud modelling.
Uses of 3D Modeling
Although 3D copies are a common type of technology, what businesses make use of 3D modeling? 3D modeling is used in a variety of industries for a variety of objectives. Some ideas are as follows:
- Architectural visualization is used to plan buildings.
- Real-estate 3D tours are a growing trend.
- Making video games and films.
- Conducting research for academic purposes.
Even in building, models are used in a variety of ways, and new approaches are always emerging. Here are a few examples of how 3D models are utilized in construction:
Machine control may be more accurate, efficient, and cost-effective using 3D modeling. Machine operators may view the job site on a screen while in the cab, rather than using typical survey stakes. Based on the data from the 3D model, a set of sensors guides the machine.
On-board computers are installed in excavators, backhoes, and bulldozers, and GPS devices are installed in blades and buckets. You have the option of installing a GPS base station on the job site or paying for a GPS service. It will interact with the receivers on your machines, regardless of the system type, you select.
You load your equipment’s onboard computers with the 3D model, which is referenced to GPS coordinates Following that, these computers can interact with GPS receivers and industrial controllers. The GPS tracks where the gadget is at all times as it moves about the location. The GPS pinpoints the position of your machinery’s blades and buckets as they move.
The blades or buckets can be automatically adjusted to the appropriate excavation depths or surface heights by the computer. With this skill, roads, walkways, and parking lots may be graded smoothly and accurately.
Site layout, including the positioning of utility equipment and landscape components, can also be communicated via 3D models.
You can, for example, plot the position of electrical equipment. Typical examples include electrical service slabs, light poles, and connections for signs, kiosks, decorations, and other electrically powered things. Electricians can rapidly and precisely put up these connections using a 3D model.
Other utilities, such as gutters, water, and wastewater pipelines, natural gas lines, and more, may be mapped using 3D mapping technology. The arrangement of utilities is charted to offer crews better confidence in their placement and the knowledge they need to put this equipment at any moment.
Landscaping, curbs, seats, and almost any other site feature may be included in a 3D model. Benches and playground equipment, for example, require a foundation and connection. Crews may prepare these pieces early in the process and avoid re-digging later if they know where they’ll go.
Reports on Progress and As-Builts
When it comes to conveying project progress and producing as-built drawings, 3D models may be quite helpful. Throughout an assignment, you can collect fresh data to generate updated 3D models that depict the current state of the location. After a project is completed, a 3D model may be utilized for maintenance, operations, and asset management throughout the facility’s life cycle.
The Advantages of Using 3D Modeling
An increase in the accuracy of plans: Before construction begins, 3D models reveal conflicts, inconsistencies, and other flaws in the designs, which minimizes rework and expenses for the project.
In-field precision: Machine operators have an easier time following project plans since the machines have the same data as the surveyor. When traversing a job site, workers won’t have to rely only on contours. The surface of the 3D copy is likewise constructed according to the terrain’s real vertical and horizontal geometry.
Less expensive surveys: The use of 3D modeling eliminates the necessity for regular grade verification, which saves surveying expenses. With decreased surveying expenses, you may win more jobs and make more money over time. As your business grows, the increased funds can be used to improve equipment and recruit more staff.
Improved machine performance: Because it moves exactly according to the measurements of the 3D model, machinery runs more efficiently. In less time, 3D modeling allows you to get more out of your equipment with less effort. Fuel, repair, and maintenance expenses are all reduced as a result of the enhanced efficiency.
Reduced costs of basic materials: Techniques such as 3D modeling can help you get it right the first time and make better use of your material resources. Because you’ll require fewer supplies for each operation, this increased productivity lowers raw material prices. This is a long-term and cost-effective advantage.
Labor expenses are lower: Many of the machine operator’s responsibilities are automated with 3D machine control modeling, allowing them to operate faster and with fewer errors – this quality boosts individual worker productivity while lowering labor expenses.
Better communication: 3D models may be used to communicate project information to diverse stakeholders in a more approachable and visible way. It will be easier to share thoughts and suggestions if everyone has a shared grasp of the topic.
The number of usages increased: The data may be put up once and then used for grading, utilities, and hardscaping, among other things. Additionally, you may make changes to the material as needed for future assignments by editing it.
Cost savings on the project: According to research by the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration, using a 3D model can lower project costs by four to six percent. 3D models may boost efficiency by 15 to 25% in the earthmoving industry alone.
What Is the Process for Creating 3D Models?
Gathering survey data is the initial step in creating a 3D model. Various technologies, like LiDAR and aerial photogrammetry, can be used to do this. Physical elements and significant points are recorded in the initial survey as a baseline for future research and planning efforts. Using LiDAR technology, you can then scan the region and produce data point clouds that depict the physical components of a location. The 3D representation is created by combining these point clouds with 3D modeling tools.
First, we make sure we have all of the essential information regarding the task requirements and the scope of work for which our customer is accountable when we get survey data files from a project. The 3D model is then created depending on the plans we get. We correct mistakes in the drawings and make notes about future adjustments during this phase.
We inform the engineers of any areas of concern and offer adjustments as needed after the 3D model is finished to plan. To ensure that every aspect is right, we will continue to revise the model and make suggestions for modifications.
Three items are required to begin a 3D modeling project:
CAD files: You may either mail or upload your CAD files to our website. Within AutoCAD, we may utilize a variety of file types, including industry-standard formats like.DWG and.DXF, as well as a number of proprietary formats. We can work with any CAD program, including Carlson Construction, AutoCAD, Micro Station, and others.
Paper plans: Either real paper plans or scans of paper blueprints are required. Scanned files can be uploaded or sent to us on a CD. Keep in mind that shipping is frequently less expensive than scanning.
Work order: You’ll also need to fill out a work order, which will outline the scope of the job. Our website allows you to place work orders.
Depending on the project, the following aspects may be incorporated in a 3D model for machine control:
- The surface of a parking lot.
- Roads with vertical and horizontal alignment data.
- Model of a subgrade road that extends past the back of the curb.
- Large islands and curbs in the construction zone.
- Grading on small island curbs.
- Building pads, as well as blow-ups if necessary.
- Areas for sheet grading and retention.
- Utility line work in 2D or a full 3D utility plan
- Conditions that exist.
- Buildings and curbs, for example, receive points for their arrangement.
There has never been a better moment to start your own modeling career and bring your unique ideas to reality!